COUNTRIES

PAGE 3

 

CONGO
[Republic of the Congo 1960-1965]
[Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) 1997-present]

"All during the length of my fight for the independence of my country, I have never doubted for a single instant the final triumph of the sacred cause to which my companions and myself have consecrated our lives. But what we wish for our country, its right to an honorable life, to a spotless dignity, to an independence without restrictions, Belgian colonialism and its Western allies - who have found direct and indirect support, deliberate and not deliberate among certain high officials of the United Nations, this organization in which we placed all our confidence when we called for their assistance - have not wished it.
... History will one day have its say, but it will not be the history that Brussels, Paris, Washington or the United Nations will teach, but that which they will teach in the countries emancipated from colonialism and its puppets. Africa will write its own history, and it will be, to the north and to the south of the Sahara, a history of glory and dignity."

Patrice Lumumba's last letter to his wife before his assassination, December 1960

 

"The CIA had developed a program to assassinate the President of Zaire [later Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)] Patrice Lumumba. The operation, didn't work. It was to give poison to Lumumba. And they couldn't find a setting in which to get the poison to him successfully in a way that it wouldn't appear to be a CIA operation. Instead, the CIA chief of station in Zaire talked to Lumumba aide and Belgian security police informer Joseph Mobutu about the threat that Lumumba posed, and Mobutu had his men kill Lumumba."

former CIA agent John Stockwell

 

"Congo's first elected Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba was killed by Belgian- and U.S.-backed forces because of his growing ties to the Soviet Union."

John Perkins

 

"Congo President Kabila was put in place by the Western powers because he was pliant leader. He was going to facilitate access to Congo's vast geostrategic resources. So that's the main reason why Kabila was put in power. Western ambassadors were celebrating that Kabila won the elections, because they now knew that they would have the access to the natural resources of the Congo. "

Maurice Carney, Executive Director of Friends of the Congo, 2008

 

"When the Belgian Congo gained its independence on June 20, 1960, the new Prime Minister, Patrice Lumumba, was viewed as a threat by the Eisenhower administration because of his call for political and economic liberation. The U.S. government's objective was to maintain access to the Congo's rich resources. Allen Dulles, the Director of the CIA under President Eisenhower, ordered the assassination of Lumumba in August 1960. Before the CIA could act, Mobutu Sese Seko, Lumumba's private secretary, intervened militarily and removed Lumumba from power."

David Model

 

"A 2008 UN Security Council-commissioned report describes Rwanda's 12-year occupation of a huge part of the Congo. The UN report makes clear that President Paul Kagame's Rwandan elites, and well-connected Ugandans in the north, are getting rich on the resources of the Congo , while killing more than 6 million Africans in the process."

Peter Erlinder

 

"Congo has been invaded twice, first in 1996 primarily by Rwanda and Uganda, when they installed Kabila in power, and they did this with the backing of the United States. They could not have invaded the Congo without the backing of the United States. Then, when Kabila did not serve the interests of the Rwandans and the Ugandans and the US, he was assassinated.
The Rwandans and Ugandans then invaded the Congo a second time in 1998. And it was this second invasion where 5.4 million Congolese have died. Fifty percent of those Congolese are less than five years old. And the main cause of death is not so much of violent conflict, but from treatable diseases such as diarrhea and pneumonia, all diseases that can be treated. So you have basically Rwanda and Uganda playing a destructive role in the Congo.
... They left proxy forces in the Congo who were controlling areas that were endowed with gold and tin and diamonds. So even though the Rwandans and Ugandans backed out, and even though they profited tremendously while the were in the Congo with their own forces, they left proxy forces in the Congo. And this started in the Clinton administration and extended into the Bush administration."

democracynow.org

 

"The West has a real stake in keeping Africa poor. People in Western countries have sincere feelings of charity and they have faith that aid works, but Western governments and multi-national corporations reap enormous benefits from the continued instability and destitution of African countries. The successful manipulation of cheap labor and agricultural products, smuggled resources, and arms trading, relies on corrupt politicians, prolonged warfare, and an underdeveloped civil society that lacks the capacity to stand up for its rights. If there were peace and transparency in the Congo, it would be much more difficult - if not impossible - for foreign corporations to exploit the mineral resources; if there were no rebel groups or tribal conflicts, there would be no market for small arms.
... if the West truly wanted to see a stable, developed Africa, the continent would be well on its way. Instead, the situation is worse after decades of Western involvement and billions of dollars of aid money."

Jenny Williams worked with NGOs in Africa, 2006

 

"Congo's first elected Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba had been killed by Belgian- and U.S.-backed opponents because of his growing ties to the Soviet Union."

TIME magazine, 2006

 

"Although the real reasons for the Congo War have been well-documented by UN Security Council sources, as well as the fact that US/UK surrogates are getting rich in the Congo, neither the United States nor Britain have much of an interest in helping critics and Human Right activists "connect the "dots" that link Yoweri Museveni/Paul Kagame's 1986 military-takeover of Uganda or Paul Kagame's military-takeover of Rwanda in 1994, with the horror that has engulfed the Congo since the joint Rwanda/Uganda invasion of 1996."

Peter Erlinder

 

"The Kagame government is immunized against prosecution thanks to their connections to top former Clinton and Bush officials. Kagame, with its foreign backers, has pursued an identical strategy in Congo as they did in Rwanda, 1990-1994. The goal is to destabilize the region, manufacture chaos, sue for peace while pursuing war, and use the UN 'peacekeeping' mission to aid the predatory agenda. The final solution is to permanently criminalize the Hutu majority and balkanize Congo."

Keith Harmon Snow

 

"Casual visitors to Uganda and Rwanda can't help but notice that both Central African countries are better off than their neighbors, both economically and in terms of social organization. Compared to other African countries that lack close relationships to wealthy sponsors, these two, small, densely-populated nations appear to be outposts of calm and relative prosperity on a continent. But, the fact is that the relative prosperity and calm in Museveni's militarized Uganda and Kagame's militarized Rwanda has come at the terrible price of more than 5 million Congolese lives."

Peter Erlinder

 

"The Rwandan government has invaded the Congo twice, first in 1996 and again in 1998, with the full backing of the United States and other Western nations.
... What we see in the Congo is policies coming from the West that prioritize profit over the people. Laurent Kabila was installed in 2006 in order to provide unfettered access to Congo's vast mineral resources to Western corporations."

Maurice Carney, Executive Director of Friends of the Congo, 2008

 

"The Kagame military machine is - backed by the US, U.K., Canada, Germany and Israel - is one of Congo's greatest enemies. Kagame was one of the original 27 soldiers to launch the guerrilla war in Uganda, 1980, alongside now President-for-life Yoweri Museveni. Kagame soon became the head of Museveni's dreaded Internal Security Organization, and he was directly involved in tortures, massacres and other human rights atrocities during the Museveni regime's consolidation of power.
In October 1990 Kagame returned from training at the US Army base at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas to lead the Ugandan People's Defense Forces (UPDF) illegal invasion of Rwanda. The US military and its partners backed the invasion, just as they backed the invasion of Congo in 1996."

Keith Harmon Snow

 

"Corporations all around the world are trading for minerals and are making a huge profit off the warring factions in the Congo. If it wasn't for this trade then it is extremely unlikely that the war would be able to continue. But the profits made off minerals - especially colton which is needed for electronics such as mobile phones, computers and televisions - are too great for the corporations to ignore. In trading for these minerals, a whole host of foreign corporations fund the worst holocaust since World War II."

Robert Miller

 

"Patrice Lumumba was the first elected Prime Minister and ascended to power in the Congo on June 30, 1960, the date of Congo' s independence from Belgium. Within ten weeks of being elected, Lumumba's government was deposed in a coup. He was subsequently imprisoned and assassinated on January 17, 1961 by Western powers (United States, Belgium, France, England and the United Nations) in cahoots with local leaders such as Moise Tshombe and Joseph Desire Mobutu (Mobutu Sese Seko)."

friendsofthecongo.org

 

"There's really four entities that are involved in keeping the Congo dependent, and one of those entities are international financial institutions, multinational institutions, such as the IMF and the World Bank. The International Monetary Fund had set up financial rules that pretty much restrict the Congolese government. At least they prevented the Congolese government from having the necessary resources to pay its soldiers. And as a result of the government not having the resources to pay its soldiers, the soldiers then feast on the population - by stealing, by raping.
... The World Bank went in after the conflict in 2002, established the mining laws, and the mining laws provided the legal framework for the multinational corporations to come in and establish contracts with the government. Now, even though the mining laws were in place and they required transparency and adherence to the OECD laws, the mining companies came in, and the contracts were opaque. They weren't transparent. And World Bank studies clearly document this, but they have refused to publish those studies which demonstrate how the mining contracts that's been established by multinational corporations are actually odious contracts and absolutely do not serve the interests of the Congolese people, but serve the interest of investors from the West."

Maurice Carney, Co-Founder and Executive Director of Friends of the Congo, 2008

 

"A UN report of October 2002 cited an estimate that "more than 3.5 million excess deaths" had occurred in the DRCongo between August 1998 and September 2002; the report concluded that "These deaths are a direct result of the occupation by Rwanda and Uganda. A mortality study published in January 2009 estimated the "excess death toll in DR Congo since 1998 to be 5.4 million."

Edward S. Herman

 

"Congo has coltan - every cell phone and laptop computer has coltan in it. And several million people in the last few years in the Congo have been killed over coltan, because all of us in the G8 countries want to see our computers inexpensive and our cell phones inexpensive. But in order to do that, these people in the Congo are being enslaved. The miners, the people mining coltan, they're being killed. There are vast wars going on to provide us with cheap coltan."

John Perkins

 

"Between 1990 and 1994, the RPA [Rwandan Patriot Army] waged a systematic, pre-planned, secretive but highly organized terrorist war aimed at eliminating the largest number of Rwandan people possible-bodies were hacked to pieces and incinerated en masse. From 1994, once the RPA violently seized power, a terror regime was created, and developed, and a criminal structure parallel to the state was set up to pursue pre-determined kidnappings; torturing and raping of women and young girls; terrorist attacks (both directly and by simulating that the same had been perpetrated by the enemy); illegal detention of thousands of civilians; selective murdering; systematic elimination of corpses either by mass incineration or by throwing them into lakes and rivers; indiscriminate attacks against civilians based on pre-determined ethnic categories for the elimination of the predominant ethnic group; and also to carry out acts of war in Rwanda and Congo."

Keith Harmon Snow

 

"Because President Paul Kagame's Rwanda crimes were covered-up by the U.S. in 1994, and because he was not prosecuted at the ICTR (International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda) for the assassination of the previous president in 1997, he has been free to rape the Congo of its riches and to massacre millions."

Peter Erlinder

 

CUBA

"Cuba's move away from a free-market system dominated by U.S. firms and toward a not-for-profit socialist economy caused it to become the target of an unremitting series of attacks perpetrated by the U.S. national security state. These attacks included U.S.-sponsored sabotage, espionage, terrorism, hijackings, trade sanctions, embargo, and outright invasion. The purpose behind this aggression was to undermine the Revolution and deliver Cuba safely back to the tender mercies of global capitalism."

Michael Parenti

 

"In spite of the U.S. embargo, Cuba has managed to provide its citizens with what the United States so far has not: free top-notch health care, free university and graduate school education, and subsidized food and utilities. Cuba compares favorably to the United States on a number of basic social factors:
*Housing: There is virtually no homelessness in Cuba. Thanks to the 1960 Urban Reform law, 85% of Cubans own their own homes and pay no property taxes or interest on their mortgages. Mortgage payments can't exceed 10% of the combined household income.
* Employment: Cuba's unemployment rate is only 1.8% according to CIA data, compared with 7.6% (and rising) in the United States. One factor contributing to Cuba's low unemployment is undoubtedly the 350,000 jobs that have been recently created by the burgeoning sustainable urban agriculture program, one of the most successful in the world, according to U.S.-based economist Sinan Koont.
* Literacy: The adult literacy rate in Cuba (99.8%) is higher than the United States' rate (97%), according to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
* Infant mortality: Cuba has a lower infant mortality rate (4.7 per 1000 live births) than the United States' (6.0).
* Prisons: Cuba even does better on prisons. Its rate of incarceration - estimated at around 487 per 100,000 by the UNDP - is among the highest in the world, yet it is considerably lower than the U.S. rate of 738 per 100,000."

Margot Pepper, 2009

 

"During the late 1970s & 1980s and continuing to the present, the most visible, the most vocal, the most active terrorists in the United States have been a small group of Cuban exiles, based primarily in southern Florida and in New Jersey, operating under several names and generally well known to local authorities. This group originally was dedicated to the overthrow of the Cuban Government and concentrated its efforts in hundreds of attacks against Cuba and Cuban-related offices and personnel around the world. They were all involved in the Bay of Pigs fiasco. They were all trained, supplied and encouraged by the CIA."

Ellen Ray and William H. Schaap, 2003

 

"The U.S. policy toward Cuba has been consistent with its longstanding policy of trying to subvert any country that pursues an alternative path in the use of its land, labor, capital, markets, and natural resources. Any nation or political movement that emphasizes self-development, egalitarian human services, and public ownership is condemned as an enemy and targeted for sanctions or other forms of attack. In contrast, the countries deemed "friendly toward America" and "pro-West" are those that leave themselves at the disposal of large U.S. investors on terms that are totally favorable to the moneyed corporate interests."

Michael Parenti

 

"The majority of Cubans support Castro. The only foreseeable means of alienating internal support is through disenchantment and disaffection based on economic dissatisfaction and hardship... Every possible means should be undertaken promptly to weaken the economic life of Cuba. We should take a line of action which makes the greatest inroads in denying money and supplies to Cuba, to decrease monetary and real wages, to bring about hunger, desperation and overthrow of government."

Lester D. Mallory, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs, in a memorandum, April 1960

 

"The clearest case of a media-inspired war - the 1898 Spanish-American War to get the Spanish out of Cuba - was pretty much an invention of William Randolph Hearst, aided and abetted by Joseph Pulitzer."

Ben Bagdikian

 

"The United States remained Cuba's main supplier of food and farm products in 2007, selling the communist-run island more than $600 million in agricultural exports despite its trade embargo.
... Washington's nearly 50-year-old trade embargo prevents U.S. tourists from visiting Cuba and prohibits nearly all trade. But a law passed by the U.S. Congress in 2000 allows the Cuban government to buy U.S. food and agricultural products with direct cash payments.
... The U.S. has been the island's top food source since 2003."

Will Weissert, Associated Press, 2008

 

"Cuban life expectancy rose from fifty-five years in 1959 to seventy-three years by 1984. Infant mortality has dropped to the lowest in Latin America, on a par with developed countries. Cuba's per capita food consumption is the second highest in Latin America. It has a free public-health system... The literacy rate is over 95 percent, the highest in Latin America and higher than in the USA; almost all children under sixteen are attending school. In Cuba, the paint may be peeling off some of the buildings, but unlike so many other Latin American countries, there are no hungry children begging in the streets."

Michael Parenti

 

"In spite of the U.S. embargo, Cuba has managed to provide its citizens with what the United States so far has not: free top-notch health care, free university and graduate school education, and subsidized food and utilities. Cuba compares favorably to the United States on a number of basic social factors:
*Housing: There is virtually no homelessness in Cuba. Thanks to the 1960 Urban Reform law, 85% of Cubans own their own homes and pay no property taxes or interest on their mortgages. Mortgage payments can't exceed 10% of the combined household income.
* Employment: Cuba's unemployment rate is only 1.8% according to CIA data, compared with 7.6% (and rising) in the United States. One factor contributing to Cuba's low unemployment is undoubtedly the 350,000 jobs that have been recently created by the burgeoning sustainable urban agriculture program, one of the most successful in the world, according to U.S.-based economist Sinan Koont.
* Literacy: The adult literacy rate in Cuba (99.8%) is higher than the United States' rate (97%), according to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
* Infant mortality: Cuba has a lower infant mortality rate (4.7 per 1000 live births) than the United States' (6.0).
* Prisons: Cuba even does better on prisons. Its rate of incarceration - estimated at around 487 per 100,000 by the UNDP - is among the highest in the world, yet it is considerably lower than the U.S. rate of 738 per 100,000."

Margot Pepper, 2009

 

"That Cuba has survived at all under these circumstances [total U.S. economic embargo] is an achievement in itself. That it registered the highest per capita increase in gross social product (wages and social benefits) of any economy in Latin America-and almost double that of the next highest country-over the period 1981-1990 is quite remarkable. Moreover, despite the economic difficulties, the average Cuban is still better fed, housed, educated and provided for medically than other Latin Americans, and-again atypically-the Cuban Government has sought to spread the burden of the new austerity measures equally among its people."

Noam Chomsky

 

"Cuba's move away from a free-market system dominated by U.S. firms and toward a not-for-profit socialist economy caused it to become the target of an unremitting series of attacks perpetrated by the U.S. national security state. These attacks included U.S.-sponsored sabotage, espionage, terrorism, hijackings, trade sanctions, embargo, and outright invasion. The purpose behind this aggression was to undermine the Revolution and deliver Cuba safely back to the tender mercies of global capitalism.
The U.S. policy toward Cuba has been consistent with its longstanding policy of trying to subvert any country that pursues an alternative path in the use of its land, labor, capital, markets, and natural resources. Any nation or political movement that emphasizes self-development, egalitarian human services, and public ownership is condemned as an enemy and targeted for sanctions or other forms of attack. In contrast, the countries deemed "friendly toward America" and "pro-West" are those that leave themselves at the disposal of large U.S. investors on terms that are totally favorable to the moneyed corporate interests."

Michael Parenti

 

"During the late 1970s & 1980s and continuing to the present, the most visible, the most vocal, the most active terrorists in the United States have been a small group of Cuban exiles, based primarily in southern Florida and in New Jersey, operating under several names and generally well known to local authorities. This group originally was dedicated to the overthrow of the Cuban Government and concentrated its efforts in hundreds of attacks against Cuba and Cuban-related offices and personnel around the world. They were all involved in the Bay of Pigs fiasco. They were all trained, supplied and encouraged by the CIA."

Ellen Ray and William H. Schaap, 2003

 

"The majority of Cubans support Castro. The only foreseeable means of alienating internal support is through disenchantment and disaffection based on economic dissatisfaction and hardship... Every possible means should be undertaken promptly to weaken the economic life of Cuba. We should take a line of action which makes the greatest inroads in denying money and supplies to Cuba, to decrease monetary and real wages, to bring about hunger, desperation and overthrow of government."

Lester D. Mallory, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs, in a memorandum, April 1960

 

"The clearest case of a media-inspired war - the 1898 Spanish-American War to get the Spanish out of Cuba - was pretty much an invention of William Randolph Hearst, aided and abetted by Joseph Pulitzer."

Ben Bagdikian

 

"Cuba is one of the poorest countries in the world and it has approximately the same quality of life index, in terms of health and so on, that the United States has."

Noam Chomsky

 

"There is no question that Cuba has the best health statistics in Latin America. Cuba is the only country on a par with developed nations."

World Health Organization's representative in Cuba, 1980

 

"Cuban life expectancy rose from fifty-five years in 1959 to seventy-three years by 1984. Infant mortality has dropped to the lowest in Latin America, on a par with developed countries. Cuba's per capita food consumption is the second highest in Latin America. It has a free public-health system... The literacy rate is over 95 percent, the highest in Latin America and higher than in the USA; almost all children under sixteen are attending school. In Cuba, the paint may be peeling off some of the buildings, but unlike so many other Latin American countries, there are no hungry children begging in the streets."

Michael Parenti

 

"The U.S. travel ban and the distorted portrayal of Cuba in both popular and scholarly media ensure that the majority of North Americans do not learn that a poor, Third World country, gripped by economic crisis, and under constant attack from the most powerful nation in the world, is still able to achieve health standards higher than those in the capital of that powerful nation, Washington, DC."

Aviva Chomsky

 

"The U.S. embargo against Cuba, one of the few that includes both food and medicine, has been described as a war against public health with high human costs."

Brian Cloughley, 2010

 

"Cuba registered the highest per capita increase in gross social product (wages and social benefits) of any economy in Latin America - and almost double that of the next highest country - over the period 1981-1990. Despite the economic difficulties, the average Cuban is still better fed, housed, educated and provided for medically than other Latin Americans."

Noam Chomsky

 

ECUADOR

"Jaime Roldós, president of Ecuador, and Omar Torrijos, president of Panama. Both died in fiery crashes. Their deaths were not accidental. They were assassinated because they opposed that fraternity of corporate, government, and banking heads whose goal is global empire. We EHMs failed to bring Roldós and Torrijos around, and the other type of hit men, the CIA-sanctioned jackals who were always right behind us, stepped in."

Michael Parenti

 

"Ecuador's President Rafael Correa is hated, because in the second year of his first term he repudiated the $3 billion dollar foreign debt that corrupt and despotic prior regimes had been paid to contract with international finance. Correa's default threat forced the international financial gangsters to write down the debt by 60 percent.
Washington also hates Correa because he has been successful in reducing the high rates of poverty in Ecuador, thus building public support that makes if difficult for Washington to overthrow him from within.
Yet another reason Washington hates Correa is because he took steps against the multinational oil companies' exploitation of Ecuador's oil resources and limited the amount of offshore deposits in the country's banks in order to block Washington's ability to destabilize Ecuador's financial system.
Washington also hates Correa for refusing to renew Washington's lease of the air base in Manta.
Essentially, Correa has fought to take control of Ecuador's government, media and national resources out of Washington's hands and the hands of the small rich elite allied with Washington. It is a David vs. Goliath story.
In other words, Correa, like Venezuela's Chevez, is the rare foreign leader who represents the interests of his own country instead of Washington's interest.
Washington uses the various corrupt NGOs and the puppet government in Colombia as weapons against President Rafael Correa and the Ecuadoran government. Many believe that it is only a matter of time before Washington succeeds in assassinating Correa. "

Paul Craig Roberts

 

"Jaime Roldós, president of Ecuador, and Omar Torrijos, president of Panama. Both had just died in fiery crashes. Their deaths were not accidental. They were assassinated because they opposed that fraternity of corporate, government, and banking heads whose goal is global empire. "

John Perkins

 

"Hugo Chavez nationalized the oil and natural gas industries that had mostly been controlled by American corporations. The last Latin American president to nationalize his country's oil industry was Ecuador's Jamie Roldós. Taking over from a long line of U.S. backed dictators, Roldós was a nationalist who believed that his country's national resources should benefit his country's people. In early 1981, he introduced a policy that ensured that, in the future, profits from Ecuador's oil resources would benefit the largest percentage of the population of Ecuador. In May of 1981, President Roldós died in a plane crash."

Ted Snider

 

EL SALVADOR

"In El Salvador, a small number of super-rich families control the bulk of its domestic wealth, while most of its people live on subsistence diets and have no access to medical care.
... Of the more than 60,000 Salvadorans killed in the war between 1979 and 1987, many thousands are believed to have been murdered by rightwing death squads. Another 540,000 have fled into exile, and another 250,000 have been displaced or forced into resettlement camps within El Salvador, a country of only 4 million people.
The Salvadoran army massacred whole villages suspected of being sympathetic to the guerrillas. On December 11, 1981, a US-trained elite battalion killed more than 1,000 people in the village of Mozote and some nearby hamlets."

Michael Parenti

 

"The Salvadoran tragedy includes uncontrolled military violence against civilians, the ability of the wealthy to procure official violence, and the presence of United States military advisers, working with the Salvadoran military responsible for these monstrous practices. After 30,000 unpunished murders by security and military forces and over 10,000 "disappearances" of civilians in custody, the killing goes on. "

New York City Bar Association representatives visiting El Salvador in 1983

 

"There is a single theme behind all our work-we must reduce population levels. Either governments do it our way, through nice clean methods, or they will get the kinds of mess that we have in El Salvador, or in Iran or in Beirut. Population is a political problem. Once population is out of control, it requires authoritarian government, even fascism, to reduce it.
... Our program in El Salvador didn't work. The infrastructure was not there to support it. There were just too goddamned many people. To really reduce population, quickly, you have to pull all the males into the fighting and you have to kill significant numbers of fertile age females." The quickest way to reduce population is through famine, like in Africa, or through disease like the Black Death."

Thomas Ferguson, State Department Office of Population Affairs

 

"Israeli advisors taught El Salvador's major landowners how to organize criminals into vigilante death squads. The death squads used intelligence from El Salvador's military and security forces to target and murder labor leaders and other opponents of the oligarchy. But they were deniable.
... El Salvador's landowners and the fascist military formed a political front called Arena, to which the CIA channeled funds. Major Roberto d'Aubuisson was chosen to head Arena... Operating out of Guatemala, under CIA supervision, D'Aubuisson's death squads murdered Archbishop Oscar Romero and El Salvador's attorney general in early 1980. "

Douglas Valentine

 

"U.S. commanders in Iraq, attempting to quell the Sunni insurgency in 2004, reached back to the terror tactics used in El Salvador. They formulated a plan called "The Salvador Option" to train and arm Shiite paramilitary units.
... These Shiite paramilitary units were accused of widespread death-squad killings and running a network of clandestine detention centers that carried out torture. The Shiite paramilitary units, which were given money from a $2 billion fund controlled directly by Gen. David Petraeus, terrorized and enraged the Sunni population. The abuse, torture, assassinations and network of clandestine prisons fueled Iraq's sectarian civil war and led to the creation of radical Sunni groups such as Islamic State. "

Allan Nairn

 

"El Salvador suffered from a US induced civil war from 1980 to 1992. Infamous death squads financed, armed and trained by US Special Operations forces murdered nearly 40,000 people... With the US policy re-militarizing El Salvador's national security forces ostensibly to fight drug cartels and gangs, a reactivation of the ruthless killing of citizens en masse once again has become the norm. The current homicide rates are even more than during the civil war, and that assault, rape, disappearance and extortion are at higher rates than ever before. El Salvador murder rate ranks at number two in the world behind Honduras."

Joachim Hagopian

 

"Pope Ratzinger brought the Inquisition back, and he didn't do it alone. His boss, John Paul II gave him carte blanche to do it.
... They destroyed liberation theology which was the most vibrant and justice oriented movement on the planet, after the civil rights movement, and they replaced the heroic bishops, like Oscar Romero of El Salvador, with an Opus Dei bishop. They did this all over South America. Opus Dei is a fascist right-wing movement. "

Matthew Fox , former Catholic priest

 

"In 1932, a coup in El Salvador - with United Fruit sponsorship - exterminated 300,000 peasants who had risen up in revolt against the conditions in which they were forced to live. For forty years, the United Fruit Company stood behind the regime of Anastasio Somoza in Nicaragua."

DOPE, INC

 

"If there's a single person responsible for the death squad apparatus in El Salvador that pursued many of our family members that pursued some of us, and that killed 70,000 to 80,000 people - it is Ronald Reagan. "

Roberto Lovato

 

"After Oscar Romero, who was the archbishop of San Salvador, in 1980 sent a letter to Jimmy Carter asking him to cut off aid to that country, he was assassinated. And Jimmy Carter turned on the aid very shortly thereafter. And the US church women who were also assassinated in that same year, the aid was cut off for a couple of weeks, and then it was turned back on.
So the problem is that the United States sends these mixed messages. On one hand, they condemn a coup, or they condemn the assassination of Bishop Romero, but it's sort of like a wink and a nod. The aid continues, and the training continued, as it did in El Salvador in the 1980s."

James Hodge

 

"In Iraq, the US adopted what they called the El Salvador option, which is a reference back to the El Salvadoran death squads of the 1960s and '70s. These were basically sponsored and run by the US for decades."

Allan Nairn

 

GHANA

"The result of neo-colonialism is that foreign capital is used for the exploitation rather than for the development of the less developed parts of the world. Investment, under neo-colonialism, increases, rather than decreases, the gap between the rich and the poor countries of the world. The struggle against neo-colonialism is not aimed at excluding the capital of the developed world from operating in less developed countries. It is aimed at preventing the financial power of the developed countries being used in such a way as to impoverish the less developed."

Kwame Nkrumah, President of Ghana 1957-1966

 

"The tacticians in the George H W Bush State Department want to undermine countries with progressive legacies, countries such as Tanzania with a legacy of Julius Nyerere, countries such as Ghana, where there is still some legacy of Kwame Nkrumah. "

Africa analyst Horace Campbell

 

"John Foster Dulles and Allen Dulles considered themselves anti-colonialist and believed that the nations of Africa should become independent. Two of the first that did so in the late 1950s, however, produced strongly nationalist leaders: Kwame Nkrumah in Ghana and Ahmed Sékou Touré in Guinea. They considered themselves socialists and refused to ally their countries with Washington."

Stephen Kinzer

 

"From Iran in 1953 to Indonesia in 1965 and Ghana in 1966 the CIA was involved in the covert overthrow of governments around the world that had threatened to nationalize their oil industries."

Peter Dale Scott

 

"John Foster Dulles and Allen Dulles considered themselves anti-colonialist and believed that the nations of Africa should become independent. Two of the first that did so in the late 1950s, however, produced strongly nationalist leaders: Kwame Nkrumah in Ghana and Ahmed Sékou Touré in Guinea. They considered themselves socialists and refused to ally their countries with Washington."

The Saker/unz.com

 

GUATEMALA

"In March 1982, General Efrain Rios Montt seized power in Guatemala in a military coup. An avowed fundamentalist Christian, he immediately impressed Washington where President Reagan hailed Rios Montt as "a man of great personal integrity." But under Rios Montt, the slaughter in the countryside and selective assassinations in the cities only grew worse.
By July 1982, Rios Montt had begun a new scorched-earth campaign called his "rifles and beans" policy. The slogan meant that pacified Indians would get "beans," while all others could expect to be the target of army "rifles." In October, he secretly gave carte blanche to the feared "Archivos" intelligence unit to expand "death squad" operations. Based at the Presidential Palace, the "Archivos" masterminded many of Guatemala's most notorious assassinations.
The U.S. embassy was soon hearing more accounts of the army conducting Indian massacres. However, during a swing through Latin America, Reagan discounted the mounting reports of hundreds of Mayan villages being eradicated. On December 4, 1982, after meeting with dictator Rios Montt, Reagan hailed the general as "totally dedicated to democracy" and asserted that Rios Montt's government was "getting a bum rap."
On January 7, 1983, Reagan lifted the ban on military aid to Guatemala and authorized the sale of $6 million in military hardware. Approval covered spare parts for UH-1H helicopters and A-37 aircraft used in counterinsurgency operations. Radios, batteries and battery chargers were also in the package. State Department spokesman John Hughes said political violence in the cities had "declined dramatically" and that rural conditions had improved, too.
In February 1983, however, a secret CIA cable noted a rise in "suspect right-wing violence" with kidnappings of students and teachers. Bodies of victims were appearing in ditches and gullies. CIA sources traced these political murders to Rios Montt's order to the "Archivos" in October to "apprehend, hold, interrogate and dispose of suspected guerrillas as they saw fit."
Despite these grisly facts on the ground, the annual State Department human rights survey praised the supposedly improved human rights situation in Guatemala. "The overall conduct of the armed forces had improved by late in the year" 1982, the report stated."

Robert Parry in his book "Secrecy & Privilege"

"At the time of the Rios Montt coup d'etat in Guatemala in March 1982, the Israeli press referred to the Montt coup as "the Israeli connection" because that group was "trained and equipped by Israel"
... Rios Montt himself told ABC News reporters that his coup had been successful because "many of our soldiers were trained by the Israelis."

Bishara Bahbah in her book "Israel and Latin America: The Military Connection"

 

"In Guatemala, United Fruit supported the CIA-backed 1954 military coup against President Jacobo Arbenz, a reformer who had carried out a land reform package. Arbenz' overthrow led to more than thirty years of unrest and civil war in Guatemala."

Nikolas Kozloff, 2009

 

"In 1954, the United States intervened in Guatemala against Guatemalan president Jacobo Arbenz on behalf of United Fruit - advocated within the Council on Foreign Relations."

Peter Dale Scott

 

"The moment of President Arbenz's fall is the moment history stopped in Guatemala or took another course, the army withdrawing support for an elected government that had relied upon it, joining in a CIA-supported coup replacing democrat with dictator, and beginning forty years of military repression."

Kate Millett in her book "Politics of Cruelty"

 

"Over 440 villages were totally destroyed and well over 100,000 civilians were killed or "disappeared" in Guatemala, all with the enthusiastic support of the Reagan Administration. The toll is estimated at about 200,000 unarmed civilians killed or disappeared."

Noam Chomsky

 

"Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán, a young military officer swept to victory in the 1951 Guatemalan elections. Guatemala had no industry to speak of, with more than 70 percent of the population illiterate, and with 80 percent barely eking out survival in the countryside, ownership and control of land was Guatemala's fundamental economic issue. The county's soil was immensely fertile, but only 2 percent of the landholders owned 72 percent of the arable land, and only a tiny part of their holdings was under cultivation.
The following year, Arbenz got the Guatemalan Congress to pass a new law ordering the expropriation of all property that was larger than six hundred acres and not in cultivation. The confiscated lands were to be divided up among the landless. The owners were to receive compensation based on the land's assessed tax value and they were to be paid with twenty-five-year government bonds, while the peasants would get low-interest loans from the government to buy their plots. Of 341,000 landowners, only 1,700 holdings came under the provisions. But those holdings represented half the private land in the country. More importantly, it covered the vast holdings of the United Fruit Company, which owned some 600,000 acres-most of it unused.
Arbenz confiscated a huge chunk of the company's land and offered $1.2 million as compensation, a figure that was based on the tax value of the company's own accountants. United Fruit and the U.S. State Department countered with a demand for $16 million. When Arbenz refused, Secretary of State John Foster Dulles and CIA Director Allen Dulles convinced President Eisenhower that Arbenz had to go. The Dulles brothers were hardly neutral parties. Both were former partners of United Fruit's main law firm in Washington. On their advice, Eisenhower authorized the CIA to organize a plan for the armed overthrow of Arbenz, which took place in June 1954. The agency selected Guatemalan colonel Carlos Castillo Armas to lead the coup, it financed and trained Castillo's rebels in Somoza's Nicaragua.
Washington promptly recognized Castillo's government and showered it with foreign aid. Castillo quickly outlawed more than five hundred trade unions and returned more than 1.5 million acres to United Fruit and the country's other big landowners. Guatemala's brief experiment with democracy was over. For the next four decades, its people suffered from government terror without equal in the modern history of Latin America."

Juan González

 

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